The DNI establishes the NCSC
The DNI Establishes the National Counterintelligence and Security Center
NCSC, December 2014 – Present
William Evanina appointed NCIX
NCIX, May 2014 – Present
Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper appointed William “Bill” Evanina the sixth National Counterintelligence Executive on May 22, 2014. Evanina, a career FBI agent, most recently served as the Chief of CIA’s Counterespionage Group, where he led efforts to identify, prevent and neutralize the espionage related activities of foreign intelligence services.
The US Government unseals criminal charges against Chinese government officials for conducting cyber activities against US companies
The Foreign and Economic Espionage Penalty Enhancement Act is signed by President Obama
In response to Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secrets in Cyberspace as well as growing Congressional focus on economic espionage, Congress passes the Foreign and Economic Espionage Penalty Enhancement Act , which increases the prison sentencing guidelines and fines for economic espionage.
Leaked briefings on several classified programs appear in the media, signaling a major unauthorized disclosure
Frank Montoya appointed NCIX
Frank Montoya, Jr.
NCIX, 2012 – 2014
Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper appointed Frank Montoya, Jr. the fifth National Counterintelligence Executive (NCIX) on February 6, 2012. As NCIX, Mr. Montoya realigned ONCIX to reflect its functional mission within the IC. He did this, in part, through focusing on his role as National Intelligence Manager for Counterintelligence (NIM-CI) and establishing a Directorate to manage the broad accompanying responsibilities. He also established a close rapport with the private sector and created the first CI Operations Coordination Directorate – the first time CI Operations were coordinated across the community. Under Mr. Montoya’s leadership, the office oversaw the equity assessments in the wake of recent unauthorized disclosures. Mr. Montoya led numerous counterintelligence and national security investigations during his 21-year career with the FBI and was instrumental in establishing the National Cyber Counterintelligence Division. Prior to his appointment as NCIX, Mr. Montoya was FBI’s Special Agent in Charge in Honolulu. He oversaw national security investigations at FBI headquarters in April 2000 when he participated in the search and ultimate discovery of the spy Robert Hanssen.
ONCIX releases Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secrets in Cyberspace
On November 3, 2011, ONCIX released Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secrets in Cyberspace, which is the first time the United States Government publicly identifies China and Russia as active and persistent threats to US interests in Cyberspace. The report receives widespread attention and elevates the issue of foreign economic espionage. CNN and the Council on Foreign Relations later describe the report's revelations among the \"Top Ten Events that shook Asia in 2011.
President Obama issues Executive Order 13587, establishing the National Insider Threat Task Force
In response to the unauthorized disclosures of classified information to Wikileaks in 2010, President Barack Obama signed E.O. 13587, directing the DNI and Attorney General to create a National Insider Threat Task Force. The NCIX and FBI were subsequently directed to chair the task force and commence implementation of a government-wide program to detect, deter and mitigate insider threats.
James Clapper sworn in as DNI
DNI, 2010 – Present
James R. Clapper, Jr., Lieutenant General, USAF (Ret), is currently serving as the fourth Director of National Intelligence. He was appointed by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the Senate on August 5, 2010. DNI Clapper’s reorganization of the ODNI reflected his heightened focus on Counterintelligence. In concert with the NCIX, he merged the formerly distinct IC disciplines of Counterintelligence and Security into ONCIX. In so doing, he enhanced the US response to 21st Century foreign intelligence threats. DNI Clapper has also overseen the build-up of the National Insider Threat Task Force, the development of Continuous Evaluation and the IC Information Technology Enterprise (“The Cloud”) and signed ICD 750, Counterintelligence Programs – the first IC-wide counterintelligence policy. Prior to serving as DNI, he held a variety of senior positions in the IC. He was the Director of DIA from November 1991 – August 1995. He was also the head of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency from 2001 – 2006.
ODNI reorganizes and consolidates Security and Counterintelligence functions within ONCIX
The Merger of CI and Security
In September 2010, the DNI announced the merger of ONCIX with the DNI’s Special Security Center and the Center for Security Evaluation. In unifying the formerly-distinct disciplines of Counterintelligence and Security, the ODNI adopted a new, layered response to foreign intelligence threats. The merger of these entities with ONCIX has enhanced IC mission integration, strengthened the protection of national intelligence, and saved resources by consolidating common functions.
Wikileaks posts the first of the classified material leaked by SPC Bradley Manning
Greg Chung is convicted of stealing US aerospace secrets for China
Bear Bryant appointed NCIX
Robert M. (Bear) Bryant
NCIX, 2009 – 2012
On September 18, 2009, Robert “Bear” Bryant became the fourth NCIX. His tenure covered a critical and highly public period for ONCIX. Under Bear Bryant, ONCIX oversaw the Wikileaks Damage Assessment, sketched the blueprints for the National Insider Threat Task Force and, in 2011, issued the report Foreign Spies Stealing US Economic Secrets in Cyberspace. It represented the first time the US Government publicly named China and Russia as active and persistent perpetrators of economic espionage in Cyberspace. The report’s revelations were ranked by CNN and the Council on Foreign Relations among the “Top Ten Events that shook Asia in 2011.“ A former Deputy Director of the FBI, Mr. Bryant's career in counterintelligence spanned more than 40 years and included the successful investigations and prosecutions of the spies Aldrich Ames, Earl Pitts and Harold Nicholson.
Barack Obama sworn in as President of the United States
President Barack Obama
US President, 2009 – Present
President Obama took the oath of office on January 20, 2009, as the US embarked upon one of the more transformational periods for the Intelligence Community. Wikileaks, economic espionage and cyber attacks on the US – associated with both foreign intelligence services and state-sponsored economic competitors – came into public focus to a degree rarely known to Counterintelligence issues. The Obama Administration oversaw a comprehensive effort to enhance the protection of National Intelligence – particularly with respect to protecting sources and methods – and established the National Insider Threat Task Force, raised awareness on foreign intelligence threats in cyberspace, and accelerated the prosecutions related to leaks of US intelligence.
Dennis Blair sworn in as DNI
Dennis C. Blair
DNI, 2009 – 2010
Dennis C. Blair became the third Director of National Intelligence on January 29, 2009. A former Navy Four Star Admiral and Commander of the Pacific Fleet, DNI Blair served during the first year of the Obama Administration. During his tenure, DNI Blair focused on IC-wide priorities such as personnel, intra-IC communications, clearances and classification reform, and further integrating the IC to achieve common objectives.
Chi Mak is convicted after 20 years of stealing US defense secrets for China
Mike McConnell sworn in as DNI
John M. (Mike) McConnell
DNI, 2007 – 2009
Sworn in as the second Director of National Intelligence in 2007, Mike McConnell arrived with a long history of public service, including as an Admiral in the US Navy and serving as Director of the National Security Agency (NSA) under two Presidents. During his active tenure, DNI McConnell participated in orchestrating the passage of revised FISA legislation and the revision of Executive Order 12333. He also participated in the establishment of the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI) to protect US communications infrastructure, a major step toward addressing current threats and future challenges.
Joel Brenner appointed NCIX
NCIX, 2006 – 2009
Dr. Joel F. Brenner was the NCIX from August 7, 2006 through July 4, 2008. He is credited with an early advocacy for improving the US Counterintelligence posture in Cyberspace, and organizing ONCIX to meet this objective. Dr. Brenner also focused extensively on the private sector, expanding direct outreach to US industry, to fulfill ONCIX’s statutory requirement to provide \'\'threat warning and awareness\'\' information to the US private sector. A graduate of the University of Wisconsin, the London School of Economics (PhD), and Harvard Law School (JD), Dr. Brenner was a Marshall Scholar. From 2002 – 2006 he served as the Inspector General of the National Security Agency.
John Negroponte becomes the first Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
DNI, 2005 – 2007
Ambassador John Dimitri Negroponte is sworn in as the first Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on April 21, 2005. DNI Negroponte invested his early efforts in standing-up the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), building out its personnel infrastructure and organization, and guiding the mission along a path of new and previously-untested authorities. He is often credited for his statesmanship for handling the introduction of the DNI to the IC.
The Intelligence Reform & Terrorism Prevention Act is signed by President George W. Bush
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) represented the largest reorganization of the U.S. Intelligence Community since the Truman Administration. This Act created the position of Director of National Intelligence and reorganized the National Counterintelligence Executive into the ODNI.
Michelle Van Cleave appointed NCIX
Michelle Van Cleave
NCIX, 2003 – 2006
The 2002 CI Enhancement Act placed the NCIX within the Executive Office of the President (EOP). In July 2003, Michelle Van Cleave became the first and only presidentially-appointed National Counterintelligence Executive. Ms. Van Cleave is largely credited with refining the initial organizational structure of ONCIX, focusing on providing strategic direction to the US Intelligence Community, and raising the volume on the Twenty First Century threats facing the United States. Ms. Van Cleave served until January 2006, when the Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive had fully migrated from the EOP to the ODNI, in the wake of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.
The Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002 is signed by President Bush
The Counterintelligence Enhancement Act of 2002 established the position of National Counterintelligence Executive in law. It also gave the office the unique authority to conduct outreach to the private sector and provide warning and awareness of intelligence threats to the public.
FBI Special Agent Robert Hanssen is arrested for espionage
David Szady becomes the first NCIX
NCIX, 2001 – 2002
On March 15, 2001, the National Counterintelligence Board of Directors appointed the first National Counterintelligence Executive, David Szady, an FBI Executive with experience in counterintelligence. Mr. Szady arrived in May 2001 to begin building the new NCIX. His job included advancing new missions, building office support, and fostering cooperation across the CI community. The primary challenge, of course, involved securing fiscal and personnel resources. The resources of the former National Counterintelligence Center had been conveyed to the NCIX, but were insufficient for the broad new mission as outlined in PDD-75. On September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked the United States. In the aftermath, national security resources were directed toward counterterrorism. The NCIX was hard pressed to obtain staff or contractors to fill positions needed to meet PDD-75 responsibilities. In February 2002, Mr. Szady was appointed by Robert Mueller to serve as the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Assistant Director for Counterintelligence.
George W. Bush sworn in as President of the United States
President George W. Bush
US President, 2001 - 2009
After taking the oath of office in January 2001, the Bush Administration reviewed and affirmed its commitment to PDD-75. The White House then began working with the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence to increase the focus and resources directed to Counterintelligence."
President Clinton issues Presidential Decision Directive-75: Counterintelligence Effectiveness, Counterintelligence for the 21st Century
Bill Clinton's Last Presidential Directive; The First National Security Policy for the Twenty-First Century
On December 28, 2000, President Clinton signed Presidential Decision Directive-75, U.S. Counterintelligence Effectiveness – Counterintelligence for the 21st Century. PDD-75 established the National Counterintelligence Executive, as well as the National CI Policy Board, the National Threat Identification and Prioritization Assessment, and the National CI Strategy. In so doing, the President explained that the US now faces a more complex set of threats from a variety of countries, non-state actors and traditional adversaries. He noted that the CI system that worked in the Cold War would not be successful in the current threat environment. He indicated his intention to have a US CI system that is predictive and provides integration and oversight of CI issues across the national security agencies. PDD-75 was the last Presidential Directive of the Clinton Administration.